Interview: Cory Lagan ‘What is your perception of Downloading?’

I created a small series of questions based on my group’s topic, ‘What are people’s perceptions of downloading?’ I proposed these questions to my friend Cory Lagan. Cory Lagan is a Bartender and a part time Tafe student doing his Certificate 4 in Information and Technology. I wanted to focus on the perspective of an average young man’s view of the internet and downloading.

What is your perspective of downloading? Do you believe it is good or bad?

I would say that is it a bad thing. Due to it being illegal. It is not really good but the media is that expensive that we don’t really have much of a choice.

What type of effects do services such as Netflix or Foxtel have on illegal downloading?

Well it makes it a lot easier to watch your favourite shows via streaming without it being faced as Illegal. Netflix and Foxtel is cheaper. Because services such as those really do not have an affect on downloading. Because such as Netflix it has only just arrived in Australia that it has not given much time to give more access to more shows. However Foxtel drives up downloading because it makes people pirate stuff because of its price. It is that expensive that it encourages people to pirate.

Are you a fan of any of these services?

Yes and No. I am a fan of Netflix however I would like the American version over the Australian one because the Australian one just does not have enough shows and content that I like at the moment.

Do you think a person’s age group affects their downloading habits? Why?

Yes, because older generations do not have that much knowledge about modern technology and younger teenagers and children would not know how to undertake those steps to download. Young people, I would say students and young adults would acknowledge downloading more because they were brought up with it along with the internet.

Do you believe there are other reasons why people download? Explain why.

Yes, because media in Australia is redicuiclously overpriced. You go to the UK and it is 3 pounds for any movie while over here movies are about $20. Foxtel costs over $70 a month and that’s just terrible while Netflix brings better content at a cheaper price with much for availability.

As you can see as I have stated by only asking a few questions that I will be forwarding my research to my group to value these questions while rethinking some for our survey and focus questions.  I will also be looking for more sources to follow up our questions due to the answers I have gained.

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Analyse a Text: Is downloading really stealing? The ethics of digital piracy

The Author is Christian Barry, he is the head of the school of Philosophy at Australian National University. Christian Barry’s articles receives funding from the Australian Research Council due to his project in Ethical Responsibility of Consumers. The article itself provides a sub area with hyperlinks for information about the author, this provides his previous education and work while excluding personal life.

The purpose of Christian Barry’s article is to go into depth about the knowledge of downloading and its ethics. As the point was first raised due to the peak in downloading activity made by the famous Game of Thrones Television show having its first four episodes of season five leaked out to the public. Christian Barry’s point is that the law states it to be illegal while downloaders believe that it is morally okay. “So appeal only to the illegality of downloading doesn’t settle whether it is okay, morally speaking.”

‘The question of the morality of illegal downloading is so difficult because it takes place in an environment in which the penalties attached to this behaviour ordinarily seem to be overkill, but where there are pretty clear social costs to engaging in it.’

The audience is stated in the area of, ‘Opposing Views.’ Christian Barry’s audience for his article is “fundamentalist libertarians” and “fundamentalist protectors.” Fundamentalist Libertarians individuals believe ‘that all ideas and artistic creation should be held in common and be freely accessible to all.’ These are the downloaders or individuals who are interested in downloading. Fundamentalist Protectors believes ‘that illegal downloading is equivalent to common theft.’ These are either the entertainment industry themselves sending out messages or copyright commercials etc.

Christian Barry consisting in backing up his statements by hyper-linking quotes and paraphrasing  statements made by other sources. Including further quotes, one was a speech made by US President Barak Obama and another source he used was via a YouTube clip ‘Piracy it’s a crime.’

The text and structure that Christian follows is very straight forward. He places the information into sub areas that make the content fluent from one information to another. An example being when he states the view of excluding a theft to than going into Protecting public good he would make the paragraphs short to 3-4 lines long and nearly the exact same length in content. He even uses everyday language and never mentions himself in the texts.

Concluding that the sources and information Christian Barry provides, leading it to be a good source towards the views of downloading however leading to an unanswered question that downloading depends upon the individual’s perceptions rather than it being illegal. Christian Barry states closer to the end that individuals should understand the influence made by downloading while also valuing both sides of downloaders being victims. This concluding the ethics behind downloading and its views.

‘In the meantime, it seems incumbent on consumers to try to respect intellectual property unless doing so imposes unreasonable cost on them.’

Reference:
Christian Barry, C.B, 2015, ‘Is downloading really stealing? The ethics of digital piracy’, The Conversation, viewed on 11th April 2015.
<http://theconversation.com/is-downloading-really-stealing-the-ethics-of-digital-piracy-39930&gt;

Why is Ethical Research Important?

To understand what the importance of research ethics are you must first find out what research and ethics are individually.

The College of San Mateo defines research in the simplest terms, “research is searching for and gathering information, usually to answer a particular question or problem.” This research can be searched for in various ways, such as media, literature, tv etc. Ethics is defined as dealing with a proper course of rules or code of conduct to understand the rights and wrongs for the society.

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences explains the importance of ethical research in these ways:
+ Stopping misrepresentation/Finding the proper evaluation
+ Collaboration of Research and Ethics
+ Researchers must be held accountable to the public/ Provide proper funding


Septermber 30th 2014, Center for Eco genetics and Environmental Health, People Matter: The Future of Research Ethics, Online Video, Youtube, viewed 5th April 2015

One of the importance for Ethics is that it helps people understand information without causing misrepresentation. Jeff Landauer and Joseph Rowlands explains on their website about Philosophy that without ethics, “… our actions would be random and aimless.” This is how the importance of Ethics comes in to helping people make proper decisions that are best for them. As Jeff and Josephy states again the benefits without ethics is that, “there would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals.” The role of ethics would filter out these opportunities into positive and negative areas to establish a better direction for the individual for either day to day choices or long term.

The next reason for the importance of Ethical Research is the fact that they must work together. Research requires cooperation while ethics promotes positive behaviour as stated by David B. Resnik, “Ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness.” Such examples can be from guidelines of authorship and copyright.

The next reason for the importance of ethical research is that it helps ensure researchers to be held accountable to the public. This is targeted at people being subject protections, animal care and federal policies that establish funding by public money to be accounted for. However the rules of ethics is to make sure that researchers follow regulations in order to not harm humans or animal subjects that are involved within the research. Ethical research further helps build public support for research as they want to be provided by funding research projects only if the research is honest, trustworthy and have integrity.

Furthermore, Ethical Research is important because it helps individuals go in the right direction to follow rules and regulations to avoid the wrongs. Because without ethical research resources and information would be unstable and misinterpreted by the individual to lead them in the wrong direction.

Reference:
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Council, Universities Australia 2007, Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research, National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, pp. 01-41

Jeff Landauer and Joesph Rowlands, 2001, Importance of Philosophy, Ethics, viewed 10th April 2015, <http://www.importanceofphilosophy.com/Ethics_Main.html&gt;

Analyse A Text

When choosing a text to analyse content you must first have a framework to follow. The two I found best to follow is the University of Cornell Guide and Colorado state University Guide. The text is one of the readings we were given called, ‘Ethical Issues and Legalities’ by Penny Tinkler’s. This is the areas to follow.

  1. Author: – Begin by explaining the author’s credentials within their field, educational history and experiences. This is mainly a brief history of their achievements and qualifications.
    The Chapter, ‘Ethical issues and Legalities,’ is by the Author Penny Tinkler. Penny Tinkler has attended two Universities, School of Social Sciences in Sussec and Manchester University in the Department of Education Research. She gained a degree in history and obtained a PhD about the cultural construction of girlhood.2. Audience: – You must find what the audience the author is looking to approach to and address their issue.
    The audience that Penny Tinkler is looking for is the students. She wants students that are interested in photography and journalism. The information further goes on to state that the information given to the students is to inform them about ethical choices student make when taking, borrowing or publishing photos.

    3. Topic/ Title and position: – What the chapter is about, the question or main idea. Plus the aspect of the persons opinion.
    Penny Tinkler’s position is to educate readers about ethical issues and legalities. The perspective shown within the text are objective while also presenting various viewpoints which provide information about further aspects within ethics. It is also talking about the ethical issues involved in taking, borrowing and publishing photos.

    4. Research/ Sources: – The system in which we must reference in order to avoid copyright issues while also giving credit to further resources used.
    The resources and bibliography should be placed at the back of the book rather than the end of the chapter. However she does do a lot of statements and quotes from other researchers that she uses and notes throughout the chapter.

    5. Organisation and Structure: -The organisation and style of the writing is what intrigues the readers in. By doing sub headings and layering the work in a format can help make the work more fluent. The writing styles must go further into looking into the aspect that repetitive wording must be avoided. First person attitude must be used. In turn all of this is faced in the Tinklers chapter.

    6. Conclusion/ Revision/Proof: – The conclusion must make sense and ends with all answers completed. Plus concluding with further proof and evidence to back up statements.
    In Tinklers chapter was to concern about the main issue of ethical issues and legalities around taking, borrowing and publishing photos. Tinkler successfully showed the results on acting ethically while also backing up her points. How Tinkler backs up her statements is how she paraphrases evidence given from further scholars and researchers.

    Reference:
    Tinkler, P 2013, ‘Ethical Issues and Legalities’, Using Photographs in Social and Historical Research, SAGE Publications, London, pp. 195-208

What Is Media Research?

Media Research has a wide variety of topics to search in such as Books, Music, Television, Arts, Politics and many more. In the reading we were given by Berger states that, “most of us do what could be called ‘research’ all the time – even though we may not think of what we are doing as research.” (Berger, A. 2014) Because Media Research is the simple act of “Looking for information and data, finding material on this or that subject, getting names and addresses.” (Berger, A. 2014)

Media Research is conducted by searching through information, data and value etc to find an object or material to than evaluate from one another to choose which is right. During the BCM210 Lecture I discovered that research is not only by browsing but also a process where we focus on:

+Observation
+Data Gathering
+Theory formulation
+Hypothesis formulation
+Further data fathering
+Data Analysis

This is meaning that by the study in research in which we make can be a simple browsing of the internet or further investigations into information via scholar articles, books or further resources.

It also goes into two categories between qualitative, “accused of ‘reading into’ texts things that are not there,” (Berger 2014, pg. 26) and quantitative, “being too narrow, basing their research on what they can count, measure, and observe and neglecting other matters.” (Berger 2014 pg. 26) The difference and similarities between the two is that both are measured but in separate ways of quality and quantity. By further going into the aspect of supplying pros and cons to a discussion to show its value with the information provided.

Examples can be from the simple decision of a drink such as Coke or Pepsi to even looking at advertisements on the television to in the store products. People simply look at the reviews and comments made by the product online to even further go in depth to see what the product does or is even made with. They would observe, gather information, resources and other opinions to finalize their verdict.

And if I was to research an aspect of the media I would research the amount of impact the value of entertainment is now compared toe when it once was. I would further like to go into more information about how the entertainment industry is changing and the impact upon downloading has impacted on it.

Reference:
Berger, A.A. 2014, ‘What is research?’, in Media and communication research methods : an introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches, 3rd ed., SAGE, Los Angeles, pp. 13-32